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What is Java Programming?
- Java is an object-oriented programming language. It is very similar to C++. Inc. in 1991, Java was developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems. Later in 2010 Oracle Corporation acquired Java from Sun Microsystems.
- Java Language was called Oak When it was initially originated.
- In 1995 the first version of Java (Java 1.0) was released. Since Java first version, enhancement in versions of Java has been developed. The current version of Java is 1.8 which is also called Java8.
- The Java platform consists of Java Virtual Machine and Java Core Library. Java virtual machine, it is known as JVM which allows developers to run a Java Program. Java Virtual Machine is an abstract machine than real. It provides a run-time environment to a Java Program. The compiler of Java first compile the Java program class file into Binary Code then JVM interprets Java binary code for a processor.
- Binary Code is a collection of instructions. It is interpreted by a machine. Java Virtual Machine compiles complete instruction of binary code (Byte Code) at run time. It is called Just-In-Time compilation.
- Java programs can be run on multiple systems. It is called Platform Independent. Due to platform independent Java is widely used Programming Language.
Features of Java Programming
1. Java is simple:
- Java is a simple programming language. All the syntax of Java is very similar to C++. In Java Programming explicit pointers, operator overloading, and many complex features have been removed from Java.
- In Java, a programmer does not need to take care of unreferenced objects. There is one great feature called Garbage Collector concept of Auto Garbage Collection which automatically re-collect object when it is not referred to any memory. So, It is called Java is simple.
2. Java is Object Oriented Programming Language:
- Abstraction describes only essential information or characteristics of an object. It hides certain background information and explanation of an object.
- The principle of abstraction is used to diminish complexity and gives the efficient design of a complex system.
- In Object Oriented Programming, Encapsulation is a process of binding data and functions together in one class. So, encapsulation is also known as data hiding which wrapping up data into one package.
- Encapsulation hides the implementation details of a class. It keeps and improves the code cleaner, maintainable, and re-usability of the code.
- Encapsulation prevents outside the object to directly modify another object’s state and behavior.
- In Object Oriented Programming, Inheritance is the process of acquiring the properties and methods from other object or class. In another word, Inheritance allows a class to use the properties and methods of another class.
- Inheritance is always defined in the word of Super Class and Sub Class. Super Class is called when a class is being inherited by other class and other class which inherits properties and method of a class are called Sub Class.
- Single Inheritance
- Multiple Inheritances
- Hierarchical Inheritance
- Multilevel Inheritance
- Hybrid Inheritance
- Polymorphism is the combination of two words poly + morphism. Poly means more and morphs means forms. Hence, Polymorphism has more than one type of an object.
- In Java, we can perform a single action by different ways.
- Polymorphism cannot occur without parent class and child class.
For Instance, let’s consider a parent class is Vehicle and bike, car, etc. are the subclass of a vehicle. Here, IS – A relationship satisfies polymorphism property in Java because a bike is a vehicle.
3. Java is Platform Independent:
- Java is considered as a platform independent programming language because compiler of Java compiles Java program (Class File) into bytecode. This bytecode file is machine/platform independent which can execute any machine. So, Java is platform Independent.
4. Java is secure and Robust:
- Pointers are used for management of memory. Like C / C++ languages support pointers. Pointers are sometimes harmful because it may access memory in an illegal and insecure way.
- Java is said to be more secure because Java does not use any kind of pointers which may cause unauthorized access to memory. Instead of pointers, Java has its internal mechanism for memory management.
5. Java is Multithreaded:
- A thread is a separate program. Java is said to be Multithread because a single Java file can have more than one supported thread. By defining multi threads in Java allows Java program to deal with many tasks concurrently. The advantage of Multithreading is that it does not occupy separate memory for each thread.
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